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By around 1998 in community health centres in Toronto, service providers found an increasing number  of Immigrants and refugees, including those without formal legal status in Canada living with HIV /AIDS  (IRN-PHAS) were facing treatment access barriers and presenting late for care. These barriers, all of which continue to exist 16 years later include, but are not limited to: Lack of access to medications without documentation of legal residency Fear of deportation Complexity of system & difficulty to understand and negotiate access Multiple dimensions of systemic discrimination which compounds vulnerabilities Marginalized status, stigma and fear preventing access to information & services & self-advocacy Lack of culturally competent and appropriate legal, … Read more